The 5th woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in history
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry honored American female scientist Frances H. Arnold for the evolution and use of the principle of genetic modification and selection to develop proteins that help solve humanity's chemical problems. .
Professor Frances H. Arnold (American) is the 5th woman in the history of winning the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She is the first scientist to perform a directed evolution for enzymes and catalytic proteins for reactions. chemistry in 1993. Enzyme made through evolutionary orientation is used to produce everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals.
Professor Frances H. Arnold.
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decided to award the Nobel Prize for Chemistry to three researchers Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Gregory P. Winter for their work on controlling evolution, using change and selection. genetics for protein development. Mrs. Arnold will be awarded half of the Swedish 9 million krona (about US $ 1 million), while the two winners of the prize will share the other half.
Members of the Nobel Committee explain that scientists have "applied Darwin's principles into test tubes". According to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the methods developed by the three scientists are now being studied globally to promote green chemical industry, new materials manufacturing, and fuel production. Sustainable biology, disease reduction and life saving for patients.
Frances H. Arnold was once greeted by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace.
Frances H. Arnold was awarded for her work on enzyme-driven evolutionary research. In 1993, Ms. Arnord, working at the California Institute of Technology (USA), conducted the first evolutionary-oriented evolution of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Enzymes produced through directed evolution are used to create everything from biofuels to medicines.
"When I started to alter proteins, I had no idea how hard the job was. After many failed experiments, I realized I had to find a different approach to solving the problem. My research has shown that it is possible to stabilize enzymes and change their properties, making them more active. These are the things nobody knows how to do, "Professor Arnold said.
Scientists win the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Dr. George Smith (American) developed a method called Phage display technology in 1985, in which bacteria-eating animals could be used to evolve new proteins. Professor Gregory Winter (British) applies this method to antibody-oriented evolution to produce new drugs. The first drug available through the phage display method was adalimumab, used to treat rheumatism, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Today, the phase display creates antibodies that help neutralize toxins, treat autoimmune diseases and metastatic cancer.
This year marks the 110th Nobel Prize in Chemistry to be announced. The 109 previous Nobel Prizes in Chemistry honored a total of 178 scientists since 1901, of whom only 4 were women (with two being mothers and children). Polish scientist Marie Curie won a prize in 1911 for the discovery of two chemical elements radium and polonium.
Scientist Irène Joliot-Curie (standing) with her mother - scientist Marie Curie.
The daughter of Marie Curie - scientist Irène Joliot-Curie - shared the 1935 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with her husband, Frédéric, for his work on artificial emission.
British female scientist Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin.
British female scientist Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin was honored in 1964 for his work on determining the structural formula of biologically active substances using X-ray crystallography.
Mrs. Ada Yonath.
Only 45 years later did another woman win this award in 2009, Mrs. Ada Yonath. She is an Israeli crystal crystalline known for her work on the structure and function of ribosomes.